Photos of the Long Island Sound

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2019 Large Grants Projects

Connecticut

 CLEAN WATER AND HEALTHY WATERSHEDS

Green Infrastructure to Improve Water Q­­uality and Coastal Resilience in Bridgeport

Recipient: State of Connecticut, Department of Housing
LISFF Funds: $250,000
Matching Funds: $167,000
Project Area:  Seaside Park neighborhood, Bridgeport

Project Description: Install green infrastructure in the Seaside Park neighborhood of Bridgeport, Connecticut. Project will convey, infiltrate and filter stormwater from a pump station which is part of a coastal flood defense system, improve water quality in Bridgeport Harbor and Long Island Sound by reducing stormwater runoff, and address flooding in the South End of the city.

Abstract: The State of Connecticut will deploy a suite of green infrastructure, specifically a 14,400 sq. ft. bioswale, rain garden, water retention basin and level spreader (a constructed depression that reduces the concentrated flow of water during storms) in the Seaside Park neighborhood at the south end of Bridgeport, Connecticut (CT).  Stormwater frequently floods the low-lying south end.  Hurricanes like Sandy exacerbated by sea level rise and increasingly intense storms are a source of sudden and regular flooding.  The neighboring Bridgeport Harbor has water quality problems including stormwater pollution due, in part, to antiquated combined sewer systems.  The green infrastructure addresses both resilience and water quality by conveying, infiltrating and filtering stormwater from a pump station that is part of the Resilient Bridgeport coastal flood defense system through Seaside Park and into Long Island Sound. Green Infrastructure has documented benefits in managing stormwater pollution by reducing the amount of water which can contribute to combined sewer overflows. Project activities: 1) Finalizing project design, engineering, permitting and procurement; 2) Demolishing hard pavement and installing green infrastructure; and 3) Sharing project results through a tour, presentation, and report.  Partners: City of Bridgeport, the CT Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, and the University of Connecticut  Institute for Resilience & Climate Adaptation.

Green Infrastructure at Webster Street Parking Lot to Improve Water Quality in Norwalk Harbor

Recipient: City of Norwalk
LISFF Funds: $250,000
Matching Funds: $400,000
Project Area:  Webster Street Parking Lot, City of Norwalk

Project Description: Install green infrastructure as part of the repaving of a 5.4 acre public parking lot in the South Norwalk business district located near the Norwalk Harbor, which drains stormwater into Long Island Sound in Connecticut. Project will alleviate local flooding, increase tree canopy and prevent 6,700,000 gallons of stormwater and 12.20 lbs. of nitrogen annually from flowing into the Sound.

Abstract: City of Norwalk, Connecticut will implement hybrid green stormwater retention infrastructure working together to provide for pre-treatment as well as storage, filtration and recharge of stormwater at a public parking lot adjacent to Norwalk Harbor and Long Island Sound in Norwalk, Connecticut.  This heavily used lot currently collects untreated stormwater in a traditional storm drain system of catch basins and pipes discharging to a harbor highly valued for shellfish harvesting and recreation.  Norwalk Harbor faces a variety of water quality challenges including nitrogen and bacteria in part from stormwater runoff from the surrounding paved landscape.  The proposed green infrastructure addresses both resilience to floods and improving water quality by conveying, infiltrating and filtering stormwater before it reaches the Sound.  Project activities: 1) Remove 9,800 sq. ft. of impervious asphalt; 2) Install pretreatment curb cuts and a sump which distributes water into native tree filters planted in media that promotes tree health, conducts water through the soil and filters nitrogen and bacteria pollution; 3)  Install 9,400 sq. ft. of subsurface bioretention cells hydraulically connected to the tree filters to reduce flooding and stormwater runoff and bacteria into Norwalk Harbor; and 4) Install a sign and hold a ribbon-cutting event about the benefits of green infrastructure to inform the public using the lot.

New Strategies to Prevent Litter for a Trash Free Long Island Sound

Recipient: Yale University
LISFF Funds: $39,949.64
Matching Funds: $26,667
Project Area: Beaver Ponds Park, New Haven

Project Description: Install three types of litter traps and analyze the type and amount of litter in the traps in New Haven, Connecticut. Project will identify the best technology to trap litter and pinpoint sources of pollution from surrounding neighborhoods to inform management that better targets and prevents litter into New Haven Harbor and Long Island Sound.

Abstract: Yale University will deploy litter traps on stormwater outfalls across three sewersheds and analyze the litter in the traps to identify the primary sources of trash flowing into New Haven Harbor and Long Island Sound in New Haven, Connecticut.  Trash has become one of the most visible forms of shoreline and ocean pollution.  Much of the debris is discarded litter from land washed off streets during storms injuring wildlife and degrading the local waters.  This project will: 1) Install three simple, easy to maintain litter traps (a floating boom, net bag and sloped chain-link fenced screen) and compare their capacity as litter prevention tools; 2) Engage 185 students, faculty and community members in monitoring 11 sites to collect information about water flow and level, and the type and weight of litter to better understand the relationship of trash, storms and occurrence of litter; and 3) Share data with the City of  New Haven, other regional and local governments, and the public  to improve the understanding of how litter travels through storm drains polluting waterways. The project will remove 46,000 lbs. of trash, and provide guidance about the effectiveness of different traps, and education about the biggest sources of pollution to inform efforts to prevent litter from flowing into the Sound.  Partners: City of New Haven, Friends of Beaver Ponds Park, the New Haven Urban Resources Initiative, and Southern Connecticut State University.

Deploying a Skimmer in Stamford Harbor for a Trash Free Long Island Sound

Recipient: SoundWaters
LISFF Funds: $21,454.42
Matching Funds: $19,399.52
Project Area:  Stamford Harbor, Stamford

Project Description: Install a marine trash skimmer in Stamford Harbor, Stamford, Connecticut. Project will remove 3,190 pounds of floatable marine debris annually from Long Island Sound.

Abstract: SoundWaters will deploy a marine trash skimmer and educate and engage student and community volunteers with hands on data collection at the skimmer in Stamford Harbor, Connecticut  The project will provide students and the public with opportunities for education and direct environmental stewardship to increase interest in and knowledge about solutions to reduce the impact of floatable trash and marine debris on the Long Island Sound and its harbors. The National Marine Debris Monitoring Program found that the introductions of floatables as well as other environmental contaminants largely come from inland sources resulting in marine species becoming entangled in or eating foreign objects.  This project aims to reduce marine debris from entering waterways that impact the Sound.  The project will: 1) Install, operate and maintain the trash skimmer at the Ponus Yacht Club dock; 2) Engage student and community volunteers to collect, sort and identify the type and amount of marine debris captured by the skimmer; 3) Provide education about the issue of marine debris and individual actions people can take to prevent litter from local waterways at events including Harborfest which attracts 5,000 visitors.   Partners: Clean Ocean Access, Ponsus Yacht Club, and the Stamford Harbor Commission.  The project will provide an understanding of ways to prevent litter from entering the Sound.

 

Thriving Habitats and Abundant Wildlife

Bringing the Alewife Back to Alewife Cove

Recipient: Connecticut Fund for the Environment
LISFF Funds: $187,282
Matching Funds: $128,280
Project Area: Fenger Brook, Alewife Cove, New London

Project Description: Remove a barrier to fish passage and educate and engage the community and students in project implementation and monitoring at Alewife Cove, New London, Connecticut. Project will restore three miles of riverine migratory corridor benefiting alewife, sea lamprey and American eel that migrate between rivers and Long Island Sound.

Abstract: Connecticut Fund for the Environment will remove a barrier to fish passage opening up a riverine migratory corridor and engaging students and the community in development and monitoring of freshwater and marine ecosystems of Long Island Sound in New London, Connecticut. Riverine migratory corridors are river systems that drain to Long Island Sound. Migratory fish use these rivers to travel and barriers can block their passage from the Sound to rivers to spawn. The Alewife Cove Dam is a barrier to migration of river herring like alewife and blueback herring. Project Activities: 1)  Finalize an MOU with the landowner concerning barrier removal; 2) Conduct eight meetings with the community, the Connecticut Riverine Migratory Corridor working group, public agencies, and the Alewife Cove Conservancy to share information and seek feedback throughout project delivery.  Ultimately 50 local volunteers will be engaged in various phases of project work; 3) Remove elements of the derelict barrier and restore the original impoundment with native seed; and 4) Offer opportunities to middle and high schools students in New London to expand their curriculum to include hands-on field data collection associated with the project and enhance the STEM curriculum about estuary and freshwater ecosystems; and 5) Organize a public celebration at the project close.

Planning for Fish Passage on Beaver Brook

Recipient: Town of Sprague
LISFF Funds: $48,900
Matching Funds: $48,499
Project Area: Beaver Brook a tributary of the Shetucket River, Sprague

Project Description: Develop engineered plans to remove barriers to fish passage on Beaver Brook, Sprague, Connecticut. Project will address two barriers to fish migration at the mouth of the brook for alewife, blueback Herring, American eel, and sea lamprey along an important migratory riverine corridor of Long Island Sound.

Abstract: The Town of Sprague will prepare permit-ready engineered designs to remove barriers to fish passage at the Post Office and Harrington Apartments dams on Beaver Brook a tributary of the Shetucket River, Sprague, Connecticut.  These two dams are the first two barriers along an important riverine migratory corridor preventing fish from fully accessing upstream spawning habitat. Riverine migratory corridors are river systems that drain to Long Island Sound. Migratory fish use these rivers to travel and dams can block their passage from the Sound to rivers to spawn. The project sets the stage for the co-benefit of restoring a natural stream channel, stream flow, and providing a streambank buffer to enhance community resilience to storms and floods.  Project activities: 1) Conduct community meetings concerning the project and designs; 2) Assess requirements for water handling, sediment management, and access, and describe methods for dismantling the structures, removal and disposal of debris, and habitat restoration including streambank stabilization; 3) Conduct pre-application permit meetings with federal and state agencies; and  4) Complete and submit two permit-ready designs.  In the future when the barriers are dismantled 4.2 miles of habitat will be reconnected for anadromous and 3 miles for diadromous fisheries.

 

Planning for Fish Passage at Papermill Pond Dam

Recipient: Thames Valley Chapter of Trout Unlimited
LISFF Funds: $53,500
Matching Funds: $63,280
Project Area: Papermill Pond Dam, Little River, Sprague

Project Description: Conduct an engineering alternatives analysis, prepare designs, and commence pre-application consultations with federal and state agencies to advance installation of a fishway on the Papermill Pond dam, Sprague, Connecticut. Project will set the stage for how to address a large barrier to fish migration to Long Island Sound inaccessible for over 150 years.

Abstract: Thames Valley Chapter of Trout Unlimited will develop the best alternative and designs to restore fish passage with a fishway at the Papermill Pond dam Sprague, Connecticut.  The dam constructed in 1870 has obstructed passage of migratory fish along a riverine migratory corridor blocking historic spawning and nursery habitat between Little River and Long Island Sound for alewife, blueback herring and American shad.  Riverine migratory corridors are river systems that drain to Long Island Sound. Migratory fish use these rivers to travel from the Sound to rivers to spawn. Project activities: 1) Conduct meetings with stakeholders and public agencies concerning the project and designs; 2) Collect field data; 3) Analyze hydrologic and hydraulic conditions; 4) Evaluate alternatives for a fishway; and 5) Create a 65% fishway design including drawings required for permitting.  In the future if the fishway is installed 2.7 miles of riverine migratory habitat and 60 acres of spawning habitat will be reconnected for diadromous fisheries.

Planning for Fish Passage at the Dana Dam

Recipient: Connecticut Fund for the Environment/Save the Sound
LISFF Funds: $75,000
Matching Funds: $75,000
Project Area: Dana Dam, Merwin Meadows Park, Wilton

Project Description: Develop a plan to set the stage to remove one barrier to fish passage on the Norwalk River, Wilton, Connecticut. Project will set the stage to restore accesss to 6.5 miles of migratory riverine corridor for blueback herring, American shad, American eel and sea lamprey to Long Island Sound.

Abstract: Connecticut Fund for the Environment will prepare permit-ready engineered design and secure final permits to remove a low-head barrier to fish passage at Merwin Meadows Park, Wilton, Connecticut.  The Dana Dam is the only remaining barrier to along a riverine migratory corridor leading to and from Long Island Sound.  Riverine migratory corridors are river systems that drain to the Sound. Migratory fish use these rivers to travel and dams block their passage from the Sound to rivers to spawn.  Removing the barrier will provide access to 6.5 miles of upstream migratory riverine corridor nearly to the border of New York on the Norwalk River and reconnect 1.5 ares of floodplain.  The project will have co-benefits of removing a flood and public safety hazard  and improving community resilience to storms with floodplain restoration.  Project actvities: 1) Develop 100% engineered plan to inform and finalize permitting; 2) Develop and execute a Memorandum of Agreement with the Town of Wilton to finalize project delivery; and 3) Develop plans for project staging and construction.

Planning for Fish Passage at the Highland Pond Dam

Recipient: The Middlesex Land Trust
LISFF Funds: $51,390
Matching Funds: $51,000
Project Area: Sawmill Brook at tributary of the Mattabesset River, Middletown

Project Description: Develop a design to remove one barrier to fish passage on the Sawmill Brook in Middletown, Connecticut. Project will set the stage to restore accesss to one mile of spawning and nursery habitat along a migratory riverine corridor for alewife, blueback herring, American eel and sea lamprey to Long Island Sound.

Abstract: The Middlesex Land Trust, Inc. will prepare permit-ready engineered designs to remove one barrier to fish passage along a riverine migratory corridor in Middletown, Connecticut.  Riverine migratory corridors are river systems that drain to Long Island Sound.  Migratory fish use these river corridors to travel from the Sound to rivers to spawn.  Sawmill Brook is a tributary of the Mattabesset River which diadromous fish currently can access.  This is the first barrier is along a riverine migratory corridor preventing fish from fully accessing upstream spawning and nursery habitat at the headwaters of the Mattabesset and Connecticcut Rivers drainage.  Project activities: 1) Complete field studies including sediment evaluation, and prepare preliminary plan with and photo renderings of the plan; 2) Conduct consultations with federal and state permitting agencies about the preliminary plan; and 3) Prepare a permit-ready engineered design based upon public agency consultations; and 4) Host a public meeting to provide information and receive public feedback about the plan to 500 residents.

Planning for Fish-Friendly and Flood Resilient Road-Stream Crossings in the Naugatuck Valley

Recipient: Housatonic Valley Association
LISFF Funds: $67,097.56
Matching Funds: $45,750.56
Project Area: Naugatuck River Valley, Watertown, Beacon Falls and Naugatuck in subwatersheds of Wooster Brook, Steele Brook, Fulling Mill Brook, Beacon Hill Brook, and Hockanum Brook

Project Description: Create road-stream crossing management plans for three towns with historic runs of diadromous fish in the Naugatuck Valley, Connecticut. Project will be officially adopted by each community as part of natural hazard mitigation planning, and serve as a tool for securing support and financing for future road-stream crossing replacement projects.

Abstract: Housatonic Valley Association, Inc. will work collaboratively with three partner towns to identify the highest priority restoration projects at town-managed road-stream crossing structures (e.g., culverts, bridges) based on conservation value, flood risk and maintenance needs in the Nagatuck Valley, Connecticut.  The number of road-stream crossings in the Valley is large affecting historic runs of fish between Long Island Sound and upstream waters.  Road-stream crossings can be more vulnerable to flood damage, often require more frequent maintenance, and can block movement of fish and wildlife.  Project activities: 1) Prepare a comprehensive bridge and culvert Inventory; 2) Establish priorities for replacement projects developed in collaboration with each town and key stakeholders; 3) Develop a preliminary design/implementation strategy for replacing priority structures that demonstrates the Stream Simulation Design method for restoring fish passage and reducing flood risk; and 4) Secure official adoption of the plans by each community as part of their natural hazard mitigation planning.  The project will demonstrate the co-benefit of restoring these crossings for fish and wildlife and increasing community resilience to floods.

Creating Thriving Habitats for the Shorebirds of Long Island Sound

Recipient: Connecticut Audubon Society
LISFF Funds: $75,000
Matching Funds: $50,010
Project Area:  Long Island Sound Coastline of Connecticut

 Project Description: Provide education and deliver targeted stewardship of American oystercatcher and other migratory shorebirds and habitat along the Long Island Sound coastline of Connecticut. Project will increase public awareness about the value of sharing the shore with birds among recreational users and reduce disturbance to the birds’ breeding and roosting sites.

Abstract: Connecticut Audubon Society will build awareness and engage beachgoers, boaters, local government and residents in efforts to avoid disturbing nesting and migrating shorebirds such as the American oystercatcher along Connecticut’s Long Island Sound beaches.  Human disturbance to nesting and foraging bird habitat on popular beaches has a negative impact on iconic Connecticut coastal bird species.  The project will engage people who enjoy and municipal government who manage the beaches to be active players in shorebird protection.  Project activities: 1) Dozens of volunteers will conduct friendly one-to-one interactions with beachgoers; 2) Install signs and fencing to protect up to three high priority sites; 3) Provide ongoing support and education to up to three local municipal governments  about shared management of the beaches for people and birds; 4) Conduct three public and municipal workshops and active social media outreach about this project; and 5) Evaluate the value of the outreach effort using such measures as the reproductive success of species like American oystercatcher.  Partners: Audubon Connecticut and Roger Tory Peterson Institute.

 

Educate and Engage Sustainable and Resilient Communities

Sliver by the River: Planning for Greening the Pequonnock River on the Bridgeport Waterfront

Recipient: Trust for Public Land
LISFF Funds: $85,112.82
Matching Funds: $170,000
Project Area:  City of Bridgeport

Project Description: Develop an alternatives analysis about the type of green infrastructure to add to the coastal hazard mitigation plan for a three-acre sliver of land along the Pequonnock River, Bridgeport, Connecticut. Project will set the stage for improving water quality and enhancing community resilience to storms and floods in an urban coastal community of Long Island Sound.

Abstract: The Trust for Public Land will analyze green infrastructure alternatives to integrate into storm hazard mitigation planning at “Sliver by the River” a three-acre waterfront site in Bridgeport, Connecticut.  The Pequonnock River flows past the site into Long Island Sound. Water quality in the river and Bridgeport Harbor is poor due to combined sewer overflows, stormwater runoff, and flooding.  The Pequonnock is an important urban coastal fishery for fish species like American eel and brook trout, and provides habitat for migratory shorebirds.  This analysis will help identify the most cost-effective, place-based green infrastructure, and advance it within the plan in tandem with the community and City.  The project will move toward on-the-ground implementation of green infrastructure at the site to improve water quality, initiate nature-based coastal resilience and restoration strategies, and increase waterfront access for 2,000 residents as well as downtown visitors.  Project activities: 1) Conduct ten training, events and meetings  in partnership with the Bridgeport Waterfront Advisory Board to engage community members in the planning; 2) Involve community-based organizations in delivery of resident outreach; 3) Evaluate green infrastructure alternatives for the site such as bioswales, pervious pavers etc.; 4) Inform key public agencies at all stages of plan development to provide for permit and environmental review; and 5) Integrate analysis into the plan for reducing coastal hazards.

Coastal Resiliency Action Strategy and Hazard Planning

Recipient: The City of Groton
LISFF Funds: $50,596.49
Matching Funds: $33,730.99
Project Area: The City of Groton

Project Description: Identify tools for a strategic plan to address vulnerabilities and risks to coastal resilience in Connecticut. Project will provide actions to improve the City’s response to future storms and sea level rise.

Abstract: The City of Groton will identify tools for the next two to five years to address coastal resilience in the City of Groton, Connecticut.  The City has 11 miles of coastline (78% of its overall boundary) on Long Island Sound and currently lacks a coastal resilience plan.  Home to anchors vital to defense, health and education including Electric Boat/General Dynamics, Pfizer Pharmaceuticals, and the University of Connecticut Avery Point, the City is actively engaging around coastal resiliency planning staring with preparation of its Plan of Conservation and Development followed by a Community Resilience Building Workshop which brought together government, nongovernmental organizations, the university and industry to prioritize vulnerabilities.  It established a Coastal Vulnerability Working group to create a formal Coastal Resiliency Action Strategy and Hazard Mitigation Plan.  This project will help advance plan development.  Project activities: 1) Develop a working tool, outlining actions to respond to threats specific to the City and Connecticut coastal communities; 2) Identify, assesses and prioritize risks and vulnerabilities; 3) Conduct a senior management ‘round table’ to identify governmental structure and management opportunities; 4) Conduct a public event to educate the public and businesses about resiliency; and 5) Outline public communication and education measures emphasizing disenfranchised and non-English speaking populations and business planning/recovery tools.

Engaging Student Citizen Scientists for Long Island Sound

Recipient: Earthplace – The Nature Discovery Center
LISFF Funds: $50,000
Matching Funds: $45,011
Project Area: Westport and Norwalk, Fairfield County

Project Description: Engage 56 student citizen scientists in five experiential learning programs about water quality and Long Island Sound ecology using rivers, harbors, and the Sound as outdoor classrooms, and make public presentations about their research at public events in Fairfield County, Connecticut. Project will train students in conservation science, and improve public knowledge and understanding of the Sound.

Abstract: Earthplace – The Nature Discovery Center, Inc. will expose students to careers in conservation science and improve student and public knowledge about the environment of Long Island Sound in Fairfield County, Connecticut.  The Sound is a valuable local resource affected by pollution from surrounding land and waters. The project seeks to establish a connection between individual actions and environmental improvements.  The project operates out of a laboratory, at water quality monitoring field sites located on nearby waterways, and aboard a research vessel. Project activities: 1) Deliver five programs including  High School Senior Internships, a Summer Research Experience for Undergraduates, Summer Fish Study Internships, Summer Experiences in Aquatic Science, and a  River Research Program. The programs incorporate students into research that aims to improve the health of the Sound through identification and remediation of pollution; and in study of local fisheries.  Students work with scientists and municipal partners; 2) Share student findings about water quality at public events engaging up to 700 people. Events include: the Norwalk Oyster Festival, the Rowayton River Ramble, the Norwalk River Cleanup, a Water Quality Symposium, and the NOAA Flatfish Biology Conference; and 3) Participate in field trips to learn how water quality themes apply to careers such as at a commercial shellfish operation, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and at a wastewater treatment plant. 

Engaging Communities in “RiverSmart” Stormwater Management in the Pequabuck River Watershed

Recipient: Farmington River Watershed Association
LISFF Funds: $34,560
Matching Funds: $29,172
Project Area: The Pequabuck River Watershed of Long Island Sound, Bristol

Project Description: Conduct the RiverSmart education program connecting the story of local storm drains to the problem of stormwater pollution into local waterways that feed Long Island Sound and install green infrastructure in Bristol Connecticut. Project will educate adults and youth groups about everyday actions people can take to reduce polluted stormwater from inland communities into the Sound.

Abstract: Farmington River Watershed Association, Inc. will conduct the community-based “RiverSmart” environmental education program deploying tools from festivals to field trips about how to reduce the amount of polluted stormwater from urban inland communities into Long Island Sound in the Pequabuck River Watershed, Bristol, Connecticut.  The watershed faces many environmental challenges, in part, from stormwater runoff including poor water quality affecting wildlife, public recreation, and flooding.  The project will offer good environmental housekeeping ideas to address the problem at a community and individual level and use green infrastructure to demonstrate natural ways to improve water quality and reduce flooding.  Project activities: 1) Install a rain garden and up to three other green infrastructure projects and signs delivered by 100 volunteers: 2) Conduct public outreach events and activities for 21,000 adults and youth groups providing education about stormwater problems via six workshops, one green infrastructure tour, two field trips, two festivals and social media.  The outreach will present stormwater reduction topics including: organic lawn care, disconnecting downspouts at home, and river-friendly landscaping; and 3) Teach four public school teachers about instructing students to prevent stormwater in combination with visits to a raingarden demonstration project.

Healthy Lawns, Healthy Rivers for a Healthy Long Island Sound

Recipient: Niantic River Watershed Committee
LISFF Funds: $15,636.60
Matching Funds: $17,664
Project Area: Niantic River Watershed of Long Island Sound, East Lyme and Waterford

Project Description: Conduct a social markeing program for residents aiming to reduce or eliminate the use of fertilizer on lawns in the Niantic River watershed of Long Island Sound in East Lyme and Waterford, Connecticut. Project will prevent 10,000 pounds of nitrogen from fertilizer flowing into the Niantic River and ultimately Long Island Sound.

Abstract: Niantic River Watershed Committee, Inc. will deploy a social marketing strategy to encourage 700 local residents to use less or no fertilizer on their lawns in the Niantic River watershed, East Lyme and Waterford, Connecticut.  Social marketing applies commercial marketing ideas to engage people to take action voluntarily around shared community problems. The Niantic River is a natural, commercial and community resource with poor water quality due, in part, to nitrogen in fertilizer that flows from lawns into the river and Long Island Sound.  Excess nitrogen causes problems like algal blooms which harm the environment and reduce public enjoyment of the Sound. The project is based on a model of social diffusion where neighbor-to-neighbor communication is used to spread the word and encourage collective community action to adopt lawn care practices resulting in a reduced fertilizer use to improve water quality.  Projecct activities: 1) Recruit community members to serve as a steering committee; 2) Identify neighborhoods for outreach near the river; 3) Recruit and train 20 local volunteers to conduct  one-to-one visits with information and messages designed to encourage residents to adopt new lawn care practices and to share the practices with neighbors; and 4) Conduct follow-up visits to learn if the changes in lawncare were maintained and shared with neighbors.  This project will expand a pilot that showed promise to reduce a common type of nitrogen pollution into all waterways that feed the Sound.

new york

 CLEAN WATER AND HEALTHY WATERSHEDS

A Green New York City Playground for Public School 296Q and the Elmhurst Community

Recipient: Trust for Public Land
LISFF Funds: $191,755.39
Matching Funds: $1,400,000
Project Area: Public School 296Q, Elmhurst, Queens

Project Description: Deploy green infrastructure on a school playground at Public School 296Q in Elmhurst, Queens, New York. Project will enhance outdoor recreational green space and capture 1.5 million gallons of stormwater annually before it flows into Flushing Bay and Long Island Sound.

Abstract: The Trust for Public Land will install green infrastructure which may include permeable pavers, tree pits, gravel sublayers, raingardens, and bioswales to capture stormwater at the Public School 296Q playground in Elmhurst, Queens, New York.  Stormwater runoff is a cause of water pollution in urban areas. When rain falls on paved surfaces it cannot soak into the ground. Stormwater then drains through sewers and flows into water bodies carrying pollution from the landscape. Green infrastructure modeled after nature will be used at this playground to capture stormwater before it flows into local waterways such as Flushing Bay and Long Island Sound and transform a barren asphalt schoolyard into a community green space.  The project will improve the condition of the playground and increase access to outdoor recreation for 46,000 neighbors in a park-poor area.  It will also host recreational amenities, and serve as an outdoor classroom where students can learn about the environment. Project activities: 1) Construct green infrastructure based upon a participatory design process with the students; 2) Provide updates on a bulletin board at the school documenting project progress; 3) Teach about and install a sign describing the features and benefits of green infrastructure; and 4) Hold a groundbreaking ceremony to celebrate and play on the improved playground. Partners: New York City (NYC) Department of Environmental Protection, NYC School Construction Authority, and P.S. 296Q. 

Developing a Management Plan for a Subwatershed of Long Island Sound in Westchester County

Recipient: New England Interstate Water Pollution Control Commission
LISFF Funds: $100,000
Matching Funds: $67,000
Project Area: Westchester County and Larchmont, Mamaroneck Town and Village, New Rochelle, Pelham, and Pelham Manor in the subwatershed of Pine, Stephenson and Burling Brooks and Larchmont Harbor

Project Description: Update the Pine, Stephenson and Burling brooks and Larchmont Harbor sub-watershed management plan in Westchester County, New York. Project will ensure that the causes and sources of nonpoint source pollution are identified, key stakeholders are involved in the planning, and restoration and protection strategies are identified that address local and Long Island Sound water quality problems.

Abstract: The New England Interstate Water Pollution Control Commission will provide a critical update to an existing watershed management plan aligning with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Nine Element (9E) Watershed Plan strategy for a sub-watershed of Westchester County New York.  A “9E Plan” details a community’s water quality concerns and specific strategies to address these concerns.  Project activities:  1) Identify and quantify sources of pollution; 2) Identify water quality goals and pollutant reductions to achieve goals; 3) Identify best management practices (BMPs) to help meet goals; 4) Describe financial and technical assistance needed to implement BMPs; 5) Describe outreach to stakeholders and their role in plan implementation; 5) Estimate a schedule to implement BMPs; 6) Describe milestones and estimated time frames for BMP implementation; 7) Identify criteria to be used to assess water quality improvement as the plan is implemented; and 8) Describe the monitoring plan that will collect water quality data need to measure water quality improvement. Partners: Westchester County, Department of Planning, Westchester County Soil and Water Conservation District, the Watershed Advisory Committee, and Larchmont, Mamaroneck Town and Village, New Rochelle, Pelham, and Pelham Manor communities of this Long Island Sound subwatershed.  This project allows this plan to be updated and published include new information and changes in land use, population, and climate from the past 20+ years.

Oyster Planting  to Improve Water Quality in Long Island Sound

Recipient: Town of Brookhaven
LISFF Funds: $92,473.56
Matching Funds: $102,000
Project Area: Port Jefferson Harbor

Project Description: Plant 200,000 American oysters to assess their potential to remove nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon pollutantion from waters and repopulate a historic fishery in Port Jefferson Harbor, New York. Project will increase biofiltration by the oysters, which remove 130 lbs. of nitrogen annually from a harbor of Long Island Sound.

Abstract: The Town of Brookhaven will seed a harbor with American oysters to examine the potential for bioextraction of nitrogen pollution and repopulation of the area with once abundant wild oysters in Port Jefferson Harbor, New York.  Long Island Sound harbors once had vast oyster beds capable of filtering large volumes of water.  These oyster beds have been lost contributing to poor water quality, beach closures, harmful algal blooms and hypoxic dead zones affecting fish and wildlife.  Port Jefferson Harbor faces a variety of water quality challenges including nutrient and bacteria discharges from residential treatment systems, a treatment plant, and stormwater runoff from the surrounding landscape.  Planting thousands of disease-resistant oysters has the promise to improve water quality and bring back abundant oyster beds.  Project activities: 1) Plant 200,000 American oysters in two sanctuaries closed to harvest; 2) Collect water samples and use water quality instruments to determine the amount of nitrogen removed from Port Jefferson Harbor; 3) Examine if wild oyster recruitment is enhanced; and 4) Share project results including optimal oyster densities with local and state government, the Long Island Sound Study, and 140,000 households in the surrounding communities.  The project will provide important information about what is needed to restore American oyster and to improve water quality in Long Island Sound.

Bioextraction of “Gold Coast” Kelp in the Oyster Bay Complex

Recipient: Adelphi University
LISFF Funds: $103,917.73
Matching Funds: $73,727
Project Area: Oyster Bay Complex: Town of Oyster Bay Marina, Laurel Hollow and West Harbor Beach, and Bayville

Project Description: Analyze growth of and the potential for bioextraction of pollution by sugar kelp in Long Island’s Gold Coast in the Oyster Bay Complex, New York. Project will aim to maximize the growth of kelp as a natural systems approach to bioextract pollution and enhance the marine environment in Long Island Sound and its harbors and embayments.

Abstract: Adelphi University will conduct field analyses of the value of sugar kelp to bioextract nitrogen and carbon pollution in the Oyster Bay Complex, New York.  This Complex is part of the western basin that contributes significant amounts of nitrogen to Long Island Sound.  Excess nitrogen is a threat to the ecological health of the Sound.  Algal blooms resulting from nitrogen harm local fisheries.  Nitrogen also degrades wetlands and reduces public enjoyment of the Sound.  Sugar kelp absorbs and stores nitrogen as part of its growth making it a useful natural tool to bioextract pollution.  It removes carbon from water addressing the problem of ocean acidification.  Kelp grows in underwater forests benefitting marine fisheries.  Finally, kelp aquaculture is a fast growing maritime industry in the northeast. Project activities: 1) Obtain juvenile kelp stock and plant on lines near shore and at docks; 2) Conduct monitoring of  water quality during kelp growth considering growth relative to nitrogen, dissolved oxygen, salinity, and temperature; 3) After kelp attains sufficient size evaluate nitrogen and carbon in tissue; 4) At harvest, evaluate CNH, trace metals, coliform and other pathogens; 4) Engage 14 volunteers to help deliver the project; and 5) Provide information to engage use of kelp as a bioextraction tool for 50+ water quality managers, the Long Island Sound Study, scientists and the public.  This pilot will remove 28.89 lbs. of nitrogen from entering the Sound. 

Hempstead Harbor 2020 Water Quality Monitoring Program-XII

Recipient: The Incorporated Village of Sea Cliff
LISFF Funds: $75,000
Matching Funds: $58,572
Project Area: Outer and Inner Hempstead Harbor, Tappen Marina, and Glen Cove Creek, Nassau, County

Project Description: Conduct water quality monitoring in Hempstead Harbor, Nassau County, New York. Project will inform management of Hempstead Harbor an embayment of Long Island Sound.

Abstract: The Incorporated Village of Sea Cliff, New York will monitor pollution indicators to gauge the ecosystem health of Hempstead Harbor and assess bacteria levels that could affect other uses of its waters (swimming and shellfish harvesting) in Nassau County, New York. Project activities: 1) Collect water quality data including: dissolved oxygen, fecal coliform bacteria, enterococci bacteria, total organic nitrogen, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, salinity, pH, turbidity, clarity, water temperature, air temperature, wind direction and speed, and precipitation, and record wildlife observations; 2) Track improvements and declines in water quality; 3) Disseminate a technical report that will be made available to 1,300 individuals, local governments, state and federal agencies, environmental organizations, the Long Island Sound Study and its Science and Technology Advisory Committee, the Long Island Regional Planning Council, and the public about conditions in Hempstead Harbor; and 4) Upload data into the US Environmental Protection Agency Water Quality Exchange database the nation’s largest source of water quality monitoring data.

Thriving Habitats and Abundant Wildlife

The following projects are supported by New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Environmental Benefit Project Funds

Students Working On-the-Water to Restore Tidal Wetlands along the Bronx River

Recipient: Rocking the Boat
LISFF Funds: $37,274.41
Matching Funds: $35,318.83
Project Area: Hunts Point Riverside Park, Story Avenue, Soundview and other sites in the Lower Bronx River, Hunts Point

Project Description: Engage students to enhance nearby tidal wetlands including activities on-the-water in wooden boats constructed at the Rocking the Boat facility and educate community members of all ages about the ecological value of this natural habitat to the Bronx River and Long Island Sound in Hunts Point. Project will help develop an awareness of natural resources along a highly urbanized river and foster a community of local environmental stewards.

Abstract: Rocking the Boat, Inc. will involve 84 high school students in hands-on activities to enhance .4 acres of degraded tidal wetlands along the lower Bronx River; and use the enhanced wetlands as a platform to educate 3,500 community members about the special natural resources that surround them in Bronx, New York. Just before meeting the East River, the Bronx River travels through degraded but valuable tidal wetlands along its banks. Tidal wetlands are great places to spot wildlife, including birds, fish, and plants and help filter and clean water. They are also important for humans because they help reduce flooding and serve as places for recreation in a neighborhood with limited green space.  This project will deliver a comprehensive effort led by local youth  to enhance these wetlands for the community by: 1) Creating a plant nursery and growing native smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) from seed; 2) Working with the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation (NYCDPR) to select the best sites for growing and sustaining the plants; 3) Planting the cordgrass at 10 riverbank sites; 4) Monitoring for plant growth and use by other wetland species; and 5) Providing site visits to students in daytime and summer programs, and community members of all ages during rowing, sailing and birding programs.  The project will result will be established, self-sustaining tidal wetlands. Partners: NYCDPR, Bronx Academy for Multi Media, and Saint. Ignatius School.

Restoring Native Plants to the Bronx River

Recipient: Bronx River Alliance
LISFF Funds: $76,726
Matching Funds: $76,726
Project Area:  Bronx Park, Shoelace Park, Soundview Park, Muskrat Cove Lower Bronx River, New York

Project Description: Address the challenge of invasive plants and replant native plants engaging volunteers from a newly created Riparian Invasive Plant Patrol along the shoreline of the lower Bronx River, Bronx, New York. Project will restore healthy, functioning riparian habitat.

Abstract: Bronx River Alliance, Inc. will remove 16 invasive plant species and replant five acres of native riparian vegetation working with 150 community park-based ambassadors as part of the Riparian Invasive Plant Patrol (RIPP) at four parks along the Bronx River, New York. Despite significant investment in native habitat restoration over decades, the Bronx River is threatened by the spread of non-native, invasive plants. Invasive alien species are one of the biggest threats to biodiversity, as these plants are predators, competitors, parasites, hybridizers, and disease carriers to native plants and animals.  Project activities: 1) Creating the RIPP pilot for community members with training about plant identification, invasive removal, tool use, and safety; 2) Removing herbaceous and woody invasives using multifaceted and targeted techniques already extensively deployed in the watershed.  The techniques are related to the specific invasive and include: hand pulling and cutting, trimming and lopping vines and shrub seedlings, mowing, trimming and lopping mugwort and phragmites, digging up rhizomes of knotweed and other clonal species among other strategies; 4) Establishing native trees and shrubs at each site to create a closed canopy or shade to keep invasives in check; and 5) Piloting a public education campaign focused on the “Bronx River Most Wanted” targeted at  invasive plants identified for removal.  Partners: New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, Natural Areas Group.

Educate and Engage Sustainable and Resilient Communities

Enhancing Community Education and Stewardship in Flushing Bay

Recipient: Guardians of Flushing Bay
LISFF Funds $48,250
Matching Funds: $41,425
Project Area: Flushing Bay tidal embayment of Long Island Sound, Queens

Project Description: Construct a living dock and develop the Flushing Waterways Stewardship Kit in Flushing Bay and Creek, Queens, New York. Project will engage environmental stewardship of Flushing Bay, an urban tidal embayment of Long Island Sound.  

Abstract: Guardians of Flushing Bay will deploy a living dock to be used as public open space where education will occur combined with a stewardship toolkit about Flushing Bay, New York.  Flushing Bay is an urban waterway whose water quality and living resources are impacted by release of over two billion gallons of sewage and stormwater runoff annually from combined sewage overflows. Once thriving wetlands, Flushing Bay and Creek are now industrial transportation corridors with limited access for people from surrounding neighborhoods.  Despite these challenges the waterways host a community of environmental stewards, a large wild oyster population, and on-the-water enthusiasts including dragon boaters. This project will help realize the 2018 Flushing Waterways Vision Plan that imagines healthy and accessible waterways.  Project activities: 1) Twenty volunteers will install a  living dock with signs about local natural resources at the World’s Fair Marina; 2) Conduct two teacher trainings for five teachers to set the foundation for using the living dock as a field station for the study of wild oysters and these waterways by two local schools under the guidance of the Billion Oyster Project; and for up to 700 members of the public; and 3) Develop the Flushing Waterways Stewardship Kit as a companion piece to the living dock describing the waterways’ challenges and  natural assets to be a resource for community organizations to increase appreciation of the Sound its embayment Flushing Bay. 

Green Infrastructure and Coastal Resilience Planning in Long Island Sound Coastal Communities

Recipient: Pace University
LISFF Funds: $46,521
Matching Funds: $34,626.93
Project Area: Long Island Sound Coastal Communities, Westchester County

Project Description: Deliver a leadership education program for municipal officials focused on local land use planning to encourage the use of a combination of green infrastructure and coastal resilience practices in Westchester County, New York. Project will integrate innovative planning that provides the co-benefit of improving local water quality and enhancing community resilience to storms, floods and sea level rise.

Abstract: Pace University will implement a community-based land-use leadership program to encourage 100 municipal government leaders in six Long Island Sound communities to integrate green infrastructure and coastal resilience strategies into planning and zoning in Westchester County, New York.  The project will employ the Federal Emergency Management Agency/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Community Resilience: Implementation and Strategic Enhancements (C-RISE) Local Assessment tool.  C-RISE planning can help identify the most cost-effective, place-based green infrastructure projects to address stormwater management and flooding or storms.  Project activities: 1) Use the C-RISE tool to assess each community’s land use plan and regulations and compile results in a gap analysis report for use during training; 2) Use lessons from the gap analyses and training allowing communities to create implementation plans with resiliency planning goals and objectives tailored to local conditions, 3) Deliver a capital improvement planning process informed by implementation plan goals;  4) Apply the implementation plan goals in a regional capital improvement framework (CIF) with a network of regional green infrastructure locations, design concepts, and capital improvement planning steps that reflect community preferences.  The project will provide communities with detailed plans for delivery of coastal resiliency and Green Infrastructure projects.

BI-STATE (CT & NY)

 CLEAN WATER AND HEALTHY WATERSHEDS

Delivery of the Septic Improvement Program in Long Island Sound Watershed Communities

Recipient: The Nature Conservancy 
LISFF Funds: $175,000
Matching Funds: $118,562
Project Area: Long Island Sound Watershed of Suffolk County, and Nassau and Westchester Counties, New York and Connecticut

Project Description: Support delivery of the Septic Improvement Program by engaging and assisting homeowners with all elements of the program to foster installation of modern on-site septic systems in Suffolk County, and share lessons learned with Nassau and Westchester Counties in New York and with one local government in Connecticut. Project will expedite the installation of 40 advanced septic systems reducing nitrogen loads into Long Island Sound by 1,000 lbs. annually.

Abstract: The Nature Conservancy will enhance installation of innovative on-site wastewater treatment systems that reduce nitrogen pollution into groundwater and Long Island Sound by providing homeowner assistance associated with the Septic Improvement Program (SIP) within the boundary of the Sound in Suffolk County; and share lessons learned about how to foster these programs with government in Nassau and Westchester Counties, New York and Connecticut.  Reducing nitrogen pollution from wastewater is a priority for restoration of Long Island Sound. Excess nitrogen reduces public enjoyment, degrades wetlands and harms fisheries of the Sound.  A large amount of nitrogen discharged into the Sound comes from aging home septic systems.  Modern septic systems can reduce nitrogen loads by 70% or more and state funds are available to homeowners to upgrade them.  This project will provide assistance targeted to homeowner needs to engage more participation in the SIP.  Project activities: 1) Deliver six  public workshops; 2) Focus on priority areas with a high need to reduce nitrogen and community and homeowner interest; 3) Provide homeowners’ help with paperwork, and information about professional services and septic system options; and 4) Identify ideas to enhance program efficiency and transfer this information to other government entities. Modernization of wastewater treatment systems could reduce one million lbs. of nitrogen annually  into Long Island waterways like Long Island Sound.

Thriving Habitats and Abundant Wildlife

Coastal Habitat Restoration Planning for Salt Marsh & Nesting Birds in Long Island Sound

Recipient: National Audubon Society (Audubon Connecticut and New York)
LISFF Funds: $50,497.85
Matching Funds: $50,546
Project Area:  Long Island Sound coastlines of Connecticut and New York

Project Description: Assess and identify priority high salt marsh restoration sites along the coast of Long Island Sound in Connecticut and New York. Project will set the stage to restore salt marsh that buffers coastal communities from storms and provides habitat for nesting bird species such as salt marsh sparrow through effective coastal management planning.

Abstract: National Audubon Society, Inc. will assess eight sites and produce two permit-ready plans to restore high salt marsh to improve coastal resilience to storms, and provide habitat for related nesting birds such as salt marsh sparrow along the New York and Connecticut coasts of Long Island Sound.  High marsh is higher elevation tidal marsh located above the Mean Highwater Mark.  The marsh serves as another buffer to slow down the penetration of a storm surge preventing the surge from advancing further inland. Projet activities: 1) Conduct assessments of eight priority sites through analysis, field visits, and interviews with key partners familiar with site conditions; 2) Identify locations to pilot new, innovative management techniques such as raising small areas of salt marsh to increase nesting success of saltmarsh sparrow building off the work of the Atlantic Coast Joint Venture; 3) Develop a list of projects to restore or enhance the resiliency of high marsh at the priority sites including producing recommendations such as management of invasive plants (e.g., phragmites), thin layer deposition, or restoration of tidal flow; 3) Select and begin development of near permit-ready designs at two marsh enhancement projects one project in both states; and 4) Partner with salt marsh working groups made up of individuals engaged in tidal marsh conservation and resiliency across both states to advance the use of restoration strategies and tools.

Upper New England States (MA, NH, & VT)

 CLEAN WATER AND HEALTHY WATERSHEDS

Upgrading the South Hadley Wastewater Treatment Plant Decreasing Nitrogen into Long Island Sound (MA)

Recipient:Town of South Hadley
LISFF Funds: $132,600
Matching Funds: $88,400
Project Area: South Hadley Wastewater Treatment Facility, Chicopee, Massachusetts

Project Description: Upgrade sensors and systems at the wastewater treatment plant, Chicopee, Massachusetts. Project will upgrade equipment that will provide the most up-to-date and accurate monitoring and management of dissolved oxygen and nitrogen levels at the plant and decrease nitrogen discharge to Long Island Sound.

Abstract: The Town of South Hadley will upgrade nitrate/ammonia sensors and the data acquisition and control systems at the South Hadley Wastewater Treatment Plant, Chicopee, Massachusetts.  The plant treats an average of 2.4 million gallons of wastewater daily which discharges into the Connecticut River and ultimately Long Island Sound.  The plant will improve operational control of its aeration system to stabilize, better manage and enhance treatment to reduce nitrogen loads.  Excess nitrogen causes harmful algal blooms, poor water clarity, loss of submerged aquatic vegetation, and other environmental harms to the Sound.  The project will: 1) Replace four dissolved oxygen sensors, 2) Install two new nitrate/ammonia sensors; and 3) Upgrade the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System.  The project will decrease a source of nitrogen discharge into to upper basin area of the Long Island Sound watershed by an estimated 14,000 pounds of nitrogen annually.

Deploying a Nutrient Reclamation Project in the Long Island Sound Watershed-II (VT)

Recipient: Rich Earth Institute
LISFF Funds: $80,000
Matching Funds: $184,750
Project Area: Windham County and adjacent counties in the Upper Basin of the Connecticut River, Long Island Sound Watershed, Vermont

Project Description: Install nutrient reclamation technology in Windham County and adjacent counties in Vermont. Project will divert 1,050 lbs. of nitrogen annually from entering the Connecticut River and ultimately Long Island Sound

Abstract: Rich Earth Institute will deploy innovative nutrient reclamation technology at residential, commercial and public facilities in Windham and adjacent communities, Vermont.  Excess nitrogen is a threat to the ecological health of Long Island Sound.  Algal blooms from excess nitrogen harm local fisheries and reduce public enjoyment of the Sound. The Sound receives freshwater from Vermont via the Connecticut River.  A large amount of nitrogen discharged into the Sound comes from septic system leaching and wastewater treatment plant discharges. Approximately 50% of Vermont’s homes use septic systems which do not remove

nitrogen and treatment plants often lack equipment to remove nitrogen affecting water quality downstream in the Sound. This project will provide one alternative to costly upgrades of treatment systems by installing technology to prevent nitrogen leaching and to recycle fertilizer from the nutrient reclamation on farms.  Project activities: 1) Conduct site visits, finalize design and install technology at residential properties and public and private sites; 2) Provide mobile eco-sanitation services at up to 18 public events collecting nutrients from wastewater of 400 volunteers for recycling and educating the public about how nutrients can be captured for beneficial reuse; 3) Collect and deliver nutrients to farm partner sites for application as fertilizer; and 4) Collect information from volunteers using the Productive Sanitation technology about practical usage of it. 

Advancing Deployment of the Nutrient Reclamation Project in the Long Island Sound Watershed-II (VT)

Recipient: The Rich Earth Institute
LISFF Funds: $43,890
Matching Funds: $31,250
Project Area: Windham County, Upper Basin of the Connecticut River, Long Island Sound Watershed, Vermont

Project Description: Identify new sites to install innovative nutrient reclamation and recycling technology in Windham County, Vermont. Project will expand the number of sites committing to install a technology designed to reduce nitrogen entering the Connecticut River and ultimately Long Island Sound.

Abstract: Rich Earth Institute will develop plans for up to five new sites and six to ten residential homeowners to install nutrient reclamation technology in Windham County, Vermont.  Excess nitrogen is a threat to the ecological health of Long Island Sound.  Algal blooms resulting from excess nitrogen harm local fisheries and reduce public enjoyment of the Sound.  The Sound receives freshwater from Vermont via the Connecticut River.  A large amount of nitrogen discharged into the Sound comes from septic system leaching and wastewater treatment plant discharges.  Approximately 50% of Vermont’s homes use septic systems which do not remove nitrogen and wastewater treatment plants often lack equipment to remove nitrogen presenting a challenge to water quality downstream in the Sound. This project will provide one alternative to costly upgrades of treatment systems by identifying sites and developing plans to  install a technology that helps prevent nitrogen leaching and recycles fertilizer from the nutrient reclamation process on farms.  Project activities: 1) Convene three meetings hosting panel discussions about the technology, with leaders from large facilities and one nutrient donor event; 2) Conduct outreach and develop site assessments and diversion options for high volume public and private facilities and a pilot study for one village involving eight to ten homeowners; and 3) Provide site specific planning resulting in MOUs and service contracts to deploy the technology by 2021.

 

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